أنت غير مسجل في منتديات دارفور . للتسجيل الرجاء ..اضغط هـنـا

الإهداءات

 
العودة   منتديات دارفور منتدى اللغات منتدى اللغات
 

إضافة رد
 
   
أدوات الموضوع انواع عرض الموضوع
 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.67 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 1  
المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-1
قديم بتاريخ : 04-05-2015 الساعة : 11:40 AM

THESE ESSAYS have appeared at various times during the past sixteen years. Taken together, however, they constitute a view of African literature unified by certain central concerns of the works studied and the impulses that gave rise to them. The African writers' fidelity to experience, history, and culture has itself provided a unifying principle from which critics could, and do, distill the themes, ideas, and preoccupations of the works.
The texts used in these essays were themselves published in the last thirty years. I have tried to extract from them those insights which I consider central to African literature, insights that include the efforts by Africans to come to terms with the physical, emotional and psychic problems of their environment. The social, cultural, and historical background of the works is constantly emphasized because the authors' themes and their reflected attitudes are centered on them. The coexistence of oral and literary traditions as a conditioning factor of life and experience is also stressed in the essays; in fact, it is so important that it is given thematic status in a number of essays.
Interest in themes inevitably draws attention to the language in which those themes are expressed. Language is used generically here to encompass those technical and stylistic devices adopted by the authors to further their creative purposes. It should be remarked, however, that no detailed literary criticism of the works has been intended or undertaken.
Nevertheless, enough incidental criticism is included to sustain a balance between the discussion of the themes and the modes of exploring them.
One problem remains. It is the problem that every critic of African literature has to face:
The number of texts in African literature is continually growing. Its preoccupations are also growing to match the pressures of a rapidly changing world. Every critic in the field of this literature has, of necessity, to make certain choices and to attain his critical objectives within the limitations of those choices. My own approach here has been to select my texts from the area of African writing best known to me. I have not attempted to include all the works that treat any of the themes discussed. However, it would be right to say that, within the limits of this choice, the texts selected adequately reveal some of the main themes that hold a fascination for and are of value to readers of African writing.

ساعد في نشر والارتقاء بنا عبر مشاركة رأيك في الفيس بوك



 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.67 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 2  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-2
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 10:18 AM

The Growth of Written Literature in English-Speaking West Africa THE GROWTH of written literature in West Africa is a process that is, often erroneously, associated solely with the introduction of Western-oriented literacy into West Africa. The truth is that the Arabic script had already been in existence several centuries before the arrival of the Roman script in West Africa. Furthermore, there were, in parts of West Africa, certain "embryonic" scripts, one of which, the Nsibidi, is reputed to be one of the very few original world scripts. 1 However, the introduction of the Western script, with its more democratic application and greater facility for diffusion into West Africa, made the spread of popular literacy and the consequent growth of written literature possible. The other forms of writing were either too restrictive or too underdeveloped to have the same kind of literary impact.
Nevertheless, no discussion on the growth of written literature in West Africa can be regarded as full if we completely ignore the place of Arabic in the evolution of the literary tradition in West Africa, or the place of the "embryonic" scripts in the history of writing in this region. I shall start with the underdeveloped and the Arabic scripts before proceeding to the main subject, which is the growth of written literature in West Africa as a result of the introduction of Western-oriented literacy.
The tendency for groups of human beings to evolve forms of graphic communication that would eliminate verbal exchange must be as old as the human desire to share secret thoughts and intelligences among distinct groups by converting them into esoteric symbols and secret signs. This tendency gave rise in West Africa to numerous local “scripts" that amounted to local devices by groups of people, sometimes cult groups, through which those who shared their secret symbols communicated among themselves on certain issues about which they wished to keep the generality of the people ignorant.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.67 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 3  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-3
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 10:23 AM

This phenomenon was quite widespread in West Africa.
David Derringer devotes a whole section of his book, The Alphabet, to these "scripts “embodying secret codes and symbols among restricted groups of West Africans. 2 They are called "ideographic" scripts because their symbols do not represent sounds or letters, as with the alphabetic scripts, but ideas. Mention should also be made, in passing, of the"Aroko" or the symbolic epistles of the Yoruba’s that show how, by tying together different numbers of cowrie shells in different well-established ways, the users of the"Aroko" system could convey different messages to one another. The same passing mention will be made of the ideographs of the Ewe people that were used by those initiated into the system to represent "symbolic" proverbs. These examples are taken at random, but there is no doubt whatever that the tendency by small sections of society to evolve secret means of communication must have been widespread in West Africa, especially nearer the coast, where for a long time there no widely diffused writing was.
Those whose childhood was spent in rural Igbo areas will attest to there being some kind of meaning in the chalk marks drawn by elders on the floor when they visit one another in the mornings. Another elder coming into a place later in the day can always say, looking at these markings that so-and-so has been there.
These "scripts" remained at best esoteric and strictly limited in application and were often shrouded in mystery. Of course, this in itself is not surprising. Early efforts at writing anywhere in antiquity had often been associated with secret cults and mysterious (including religious) activities. "Among the Sumerians and Akkadians" according to Goody and Watt, "writing was the pursuit of scribes and preserved as a mystery, a secret treasure.
The Anglo-Saxon writing, Runes, receives its name from rñna, a Gothic word for mystery, secret. 4It is not possible, of course, to particularize the comparison of the Aroko or the Ewe scripts with the Runes or the ancient Near Eastern scripts (because they represented varied stages of development), but we can at least draw attention to the quality of mysteriousness and secrecy that surrounded them. The West African "scripts" have not reached the stage in which they could be regarded as anything more than mere pictorial representations of ideas.
The Nsibidi is the only truly ideographic script in West Africa: that is, the only system of conventionalized signs used to represent definite ideas. Some of its ideas could be generally interpreted while most of the others are only known to the members of the Nsibidi secret society into which men were and still are being initiated after a period of preparation.
It is a largely amatory writing but it is also used to give public notices or private warnings. The messages are cut or painted on split palm stems: David Diringer has an extract of the Nsibidi writing as well as its corresponding translation in TheAlphabet.
Elphinstone Dayrell has also recorded some Nsibidi writing in an article entitled "Further Notes on Nsibidi Signs, from the Ikem District, Southern Nigeria".

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.67 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 4  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-4
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 10:27 AM

The origin of Nsibidi is uncertain, but it is considered by Talbot, a knowledgeable administrator, anthropologist, and author of The Peoples of Southern Nigeria, to be "of considerable antiquity." Its existence was discovered independently by two District Commissioners in Calabar--T. D. Maxwell in 1904 and J. K. Macgregor in 1905--and was thought to have been invented by the Uguakima people, an Igbo group in the Cross River area of Nigeria. The Ekoi of the Cross River also claim the credit for having invented it. The precise truth will be hard to establish because of the mixed nature of the Cross River area. Jones and Forde have clearly shown in their ethno-graphic study, The Ibo and Ibibio-Speaking Peoples of South-Eastern Nigeria, that this region is inhabited by mixed peoples, among whom are Igbo, Ekoi, and Efik-Ibibiogroups.
The importance of Nsibidi, as Moor house has rightly commented, is that it reached a stage of development from which other "primitive" scripts matured into full-fledged writing systems. Who knows whether its further development, had it not been inhibited by the introduction of Western writing, would not, in the fullness of time, have become widely diffused system of writing?
There are other West African scripts, the invention of which has been stimulated by the introduction of the Western or Arabic script, or both. Here, what is often copied is not the particular system of writing but the idea of writing. This is a phenomenon that sociologists call idea-diffusion or stimulus diffusion. This is said by Diringer to have given rise to the Celtic picture writing known as Ogham’s, and by G. P. Murdock as accounting for the script invented by the Cherokee Indian chief, Sequoyah, for the use of his subjects.
The best example of the idea-diffusion script in West Africa is the Bamum script that was invented by a Cameroonian chieftain, Njoya. It is conjectured that the idea of inventing a system of writing occurred to him after he had considered the numerous public and private uses to which such invention could be put. He could, for example, use it to communicate with his subordinate chiefs while evading the colonial government’s censorship. An additional incentive must have been a desire to extend his people’s cultural repertoire by adding a system of writing to it. Both motives must obviously have been greatly reinforced and sustained by a third: personal ambition to become an inventor. Whatever his real motive may have been is not very important. What is important is that Chief Njoya, borrowing the idea of writing from users of both the Western and the Arabic scripts within the former German Cameroons, developed his own artificial and original script.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.67 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 5  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-5
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 10:32 AM

Njoya's script began as a combination of pictographic and ideographic writing with one thousand symbols, but was periodically reformed and simplified until it was reduced to only seventy signs in 1918 and became almost phonetic. The script was taught in the local schools and employed by the Bamums as the official script of their state.
When Njoya died in 1932, his invention survived him; but since then has been dying out and isbeing replaced by the Western script.
The other idea-diffusion scripts in West Africa are the Val script, invented by a chief of the Vai in Liberia, 9 and the Oberi Okaime script, which was invented in Ikpa, near Kyere, in the Itu Division of Calabar Province. The latter is closely modeled on theWestern script even though the experts have not been able to establish direct identifications. The view was formerly held that it was just mirror writing, but this hasbeen convincingly refuted by R. F. G. Adams in "Oberi Okaime: A New African Language and Script."10
All these scripts--the Nsibidi, the Bamum, the Vai, and the Oberi Okaime-could be regarded as pro to literate systems, in the sense in which Kramer uses the term to describe the Sumerian phase of writing in Lower Mesopotamia when writing was first invented, rather than the sense in which Goody and Watt use it when referring to the fully developed Sumerian, Egyptian, or Chinese systems, which, though restricted to relatively small proportion of the total population, of an elite literati, were already being utilized for religious, administrative, and technological purposes. 11 The Bamum, Nsibidi, and Vai scripts obviously showed considerable promise of further development, but their rather local and limited application meant that they were doomed in the face of the advancing cosmopolitan Western and Arabic scripts. They could be compared to the Germanic Runes and the Celtic Oghams, which were also restricted scripts, the former used mainly in Scandinavia, Germany, and Britain and the latter in the Celtic areas of Britain, and which disappeared with the introduction and diffusion of the Roman script in the areas in which both scripts had previously been in use.
Neither the West African nor the European scripts are known to have been used extensively in communication, nor were they used to create written literature. Their comparison cannot, of course, be sustained all the way. Both the Runes and the Oghamsare alphabetic scripts, while the local West African scripts are, with the exception of Oberi Okaime, either pictographic or ideographic and obviously much more local and restricted. Even if the local West African scripts had been more widely diffused than they actually were, their being pictographic or ideographic places them at a distinct disadvantage visà-vis the fully-developed Western and Arabic scripts since, as Goody and Watt have rightly pointed out, the alphabet with its system of single signs for individual sounds, has always proved more economic and convenient than any other system of writing.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.67 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 6  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-6
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 10:35 AM

The "embryonic" scripts place this region right in the mainstream of a universally observed phenomenon. When it is misguidedly argued by a certain school of European thought that any people who have not, among other things, invented writing, must be regarded as primitive, it is not always apparent to them that Africans have not been behind the rest of the world in experimenting with some systems of symbolic representation of objects or ideas for communication, record, or ritual purposes. If the opinion of experts is to be believed, then West Africa ought to be proud of having one of the five original scripts of the world, a distinction to which Europe, in spite of its great civilization, cannot lay claim. We can only speculate on what could have become of the Nsibidi if its development had not been arrested by the introduction of the Western alphabet. Any such speculation would of course be irrelevant since no one who has turned his mind to the question could seriously regret the replacement of such an underdeveloped script by the more efficient alphabetic system. At a time when even China is seriously considering replacing its centuries-old ideographic writing with the alpha-betic script, it would be altogether unrealistic for any West African to lament the passing away of the embryonic scripts. No one regrets their being superseded any more than any Englishman or Irishman or Welshman regrets the supersession of the Runic and Oghamsby the Roman. The local scripts have become casualties of the ever-widening sweep of a world civilization transmitted through cosmopolitan scripts and the agency of cosmopolitan and proselytizing religions.
At any rate, what has happened in West Africa is largely what Chadwick has established as being a near-universal phenomenon. 14 In Europe, as elsewhere, the early phase of writing consisted of crude scribbling’s on objects of wood, bone, metal, and stone in “native" scripts, to denote ownership, memorial notices, magical formulae, and so on.
There was no attempt to use writing for extensive communication or literary expression.
The second phase sees the introduction of a cosmopolitan script that is used for communication, record-keeping on a massive scale, and creation of written literatures.
The Nsibidi script and its use fall within the first stage, the stage of the AngloSaxon Runes and the Celtic Oghams. The second stage, that of the introduction of the Roman script, West Africa shares with Anglo-Saxon Britain and with every other place where the Roman script has been introduced. The introduction of the Arabic script into West Africa has this in common with the introduction of the Roman script: it had a very close association with a cosmopolitan and proselytizing religion, and its dissemination was also fostered by the dissemination of this religion.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.67 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 7  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-7
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 10:41 AM

Moreover, both the Roman script and the Arabic script are ancestrally related, both being derived from the Egyptian syllabary. Out of the Egyptian syllabary grew the Semitic alphabet, one of whose scions is the Arabic script. The Greeks borrowed the Phoenician branch of the Semitic alphabet, a wholly consonantal system, and converted some of its consonants not needed by them to the vowels which they did need. From the Greeks, the alphabet passed on to the Etruscans, and from the Etruscans to the Romans.
After some further modifications, the Romans and (with the fall of the Roman Empire)the Christian Church, spread it throughout Europe, whence it was later introduced into the other parts of the world. Thus, even though we may not be immediately aware of the fact, the Arabic and the Western scripts, the two dominant writing systems of West Africa, are related. It is obvious, therefore, that both the West Africans, who use the Western or the Arabic script, and Europeans and Arabs, who introduced these scripts into West Africa, owe their possession of alphabetic writing ultimately to the ancient Egyptians.
As a result of the introduction of Islam, Arabic scholarship, based on the use of the Arabic script, and drawing sustenance from the scholastic tradition of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Middle East, flourished in the Western Sudan long before the introduction of Western learning to West Africa. The tremendous importance of this scholarship is only just being fully realized, as the manuscripts embodying the writings of learned marabouts and other

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.67 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 8  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-8
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 10:46 AM

Arabic scholars are increasingly unearthed by different researchers and assembled in the
Departments of Arabic studies in West African universities and elsewhere.
The vintage period of Arabic scholarship in West Africa is, however, associated with the Fulani jihad in Northern Nigeria in the nineteenth century. Hodgkin has rightly designated this as a period of Islamic literary renaissance in West Africa because the literature produced during that period covered the entire range of traditional Islamic sciences, including theology, exegetics, law, literature, grammar and mysticism. This renaissance is essentially a product of the Shehu, Uthman dan Fodio, the leader of the jihad, and his sons, Sultan Bello and Abdullah, all of whom were accomplished Islamic scholars. The most outstanding literature of this period is Sultan Bello Infaq al-Maysur, which is written in the tradition of the Arabic tracts of the times. Apart from histories, chronicles, and jihad tracts, there are also large collections of letters, some of which were recovered from some native officials by British administrators during the pacification of the north. The most famous of the letters are those composed by Muhammed Bell during his delightful polemics with the Sultan of Bornu. The letters are easily the most interesting of the body of West African Arabic literature. They reveal an elaborate ceremonial mode of address that is typically Eastern, as well as a ruthless logicality of thought, keenness of wit, and an astounding mastery of figurative language. They contain great masses of oily rhetoric, within which is craftily embedded much barbed vituperation. In addition, there are also praise-poems, such as those addressed to particular dignitaries. Hodgkin regards these praise-poems as examples of a form of literature common throughout the Western Sudan.
Evidence points unmistakably to the numerous influences of the Arabic Islamic culture on the Moslem areas of West Africa, influences that were made possible by a fully developed alphabetic script that the introduced culture brought with it. Proficiency in the use of Arabic writing has remained at all times the prerogative of a small section of the population, the scribes and the learned men; it was never diffused among the entire population.
The production of literature in the Arabic script, as well as its use for communication purposes, has remained largely the preserve of a tiny intelligentsia of religious and administrative dignitaries.
We may see in the restricted diffusion of Arabic writing a reflection of the feudal nature of the societies in which it is employed in West Africa, 16 societies in which acquisition of literacy and literary education is regarded as the privilege of the ruling classes.
There is, however, another reason why the diffusion of the Arabic writing system has been very slow in West Africa, why, in spite of its arrival several centuries before the Western script, the latter has mainly superseded it and taken its place for record-keeping and communication except in Islamic religious.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.67 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 9  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-9
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 10:50 AM

The acquisition of proficiency in it is a long and tedious process because it is purely consonantal system and therefore requires longer time and great effort to master.
One is reminded, in this respect, of the anecdote often told by Moslem scholars. When Mohammed, according to them, was asked to say how long he thought an individual would take to master Arabic writing thoroughly, he was reported to have answered that it would take two hundred years. Only a few people can hope ever to attain anything approaching mastery over the system. These few are made much of the Islamic societies because the rest of the population has to depend on them and their labors for intellectual, religious, and administrative leadership.
This also explains why much of the literature of the Arabic tradition has to be put into verse and made as easy to commit to rote as possible--there is in this tradition a blending of the literary and the oral impulses. We notice, for instance, the passage in Abdullah danFodio's autobiography, Id al-nusukh man 'akhadhtu' ahu mina al-shuukh, in which, after enumerating the large number of sheikhs "from whom I have acquired knowledge," he proceeds to turn his composition to verse 17 in order to make the memorizing of it easy for his great-niece.
Goody and Watt tend to corroborate the two reasons stated here why the Arabic script has not been more widely diffused: "As regards the Semitic system--the evidence suggests that--in part, perhaps because of the intrinsic difficulties of the system, but mainly because of the established cultural features of the societies which adopted them--the social diffusion of writing was slow. There was, for one thing, a strong tendency for writing to be used as a help to memory rather than as an autonomous and independent mode of communication...."
Arabic laudatory poetry, chronicles, philosophical tracts, and, in fact, every other literary genre, are couched in the form of language that is easily accessible to memory. Hence, what has clearly distinguished Arabic literary output in West Africa has been its highly formalized cadence and poetic, rather than prosaic, linguistic structure.
Despite the fact that the Arabic script has been in use in West Africa for the past seven centuries, it has continued to be a minority script and has become increasingly so since the introduction of the Western script. This is so despite the past, and continuing presence of numerous Koranic schools in the Islamized parts of West Africa. As Sir Alan Burns informs us, in Islamic schools the pupils learn the Koran by heart, and are instructed in their religion, but there is little or no education in the Western sense.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.67 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 10  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-10
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 01:28 PM

With the introduction of Western-type schools, Moslems have also begun to acquire Western type education to furnish themselves with the knowledge and skills necessary to make a living and to satisfy their ambitions in a modern technological society. The citadels of Islamic feudalism will collapse one by one before the advance of Western-type literacy, with its democratic appeal and infinitely greater ease of articulation, not only for record-keeping and communication, but also for the production of all types of creative literature, including the most complex of them all, the novel.
The introduction of the Western script into West Africa was consequent upon the introduction of Western-type education. The use of the Arabic script to produce a written literature and for communication purposes is, as we have noted, very much limited to privileged minority of religious and administrative personages. The few pictographic and ideographic "native" scripts, we have also seen, were too rudimentary, underdeveloped, and restricted to be of any use for the production of literature or for communication. The introduction of the Western script with its wider appeal, however, ushered West Africa into the mainstream of the literary tradition by making available the most efficient medium for the production of literature and a most highly developed means of communication among the largest possible number of people. The process of literary development, which began with the spread of the Roman script by Christian monks and teachers all over Europe during the Dark Ages and after and gave rise to the profound transformation of the oral cultures of Europe, had at last begun in West Africa, with the spread of Western-oriented literacy and the initiation of literary activities from the late eighteenth century onward. In West Africa, as in Europe, the Christian Church has been the chief agent in the spread of literacy and the introduction of literary activities.
It is, however, not altogether true, as is often assumed, that modern education was first introduced into West Africa by the Christian missionaries. Captain John Adams, a British merchant and adventurer who made ten voyages to the west coast between 1786 and1800, describes the educational situation in Caliber at the end of the eighteenth century.
He notes that the presence of European traders along the coast had stimulated a desire for literacy among the native inhabitants, who therefore devoted considerable efforts to acquiring it, long before the missionaries began to arrive. 20 This is how Captain Adams saw the situation:

 
إضافة رد


أدوات الموضوع
انواع عرض الموضوع

 
ضوابط المشاركة
لا تستطيع إضافة مواضيع جديدة
لا تستطيع الرد على المواضيع
لا تستطيع إرفاق ملفات
لا تستطيع تعديل مشاركاتك

كود [IMG]متاحة
كود HTML معطلة

 
 
 
<"">

خريطه الموقع RSS RSS 2.0 XML MAP HTML


Loading...


Powered by vBulletin™ Version 3.8.7
Copyright © 2017 vBulletin Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved
منتديات دارفور
جميع الحقوق محفوظة لمنديات دارفور