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محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
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محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



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افتراضي Affirmative Action Comprehensive Writing Model-8
قديم بتاريخ : 06-23-2015 الساعة : 06:21 PM

that is causing more qualified people to take lower paying jobs. Since the beginning of the use of affirmative action, America has become a racially tense and a strained place to live in, since whites and minorities fail to agree on the effectiveness of !

Affirmative Action is defined by Webster's New World College Dictionary as " a policy or program for correcting the effects of discrimination in the employment or education of members of certain groups." Affirmative Action was designed to help eliminate past & present discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. This was implemented because of the discrimination that minorities received from the whites of America (Kivel 9). The actual phrase "affirmative action" was first used in President Lyndon Johnson's 1965 Executive Order 11246, which requires federal contractors to “take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin," (Lewis 15). In 1967, Johnson expanded the Executive Order to include affirmative action requirements to benefit women (Peters 43).
Originally, these civil rights programs were enacted to help African Americans become full citizens of the United States. The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution made slavery illegal, the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees equal protection under the law, and the Fifteenth Amendment forbids racial discrimination in voting rights. The 1866 Civil Rights Act guarantees every citizen "the same right to make and enforce contracts...as is enjoyed by white citizens" (Sykes 123) In 1896, the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson upheld a "separate, but equal" doctrine that proved to be anything but equal for African Americans. The decision marked the end of the post-Civil War reconstruction era as Jim Crow laws spread across the South (Sykes 131). In 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802, which outlawed “segregationist hiring policies by defense-related industries that held federal contracts (Lewis 7).” Roosevelt's signing of this order was a direct result of efforts by black trade union leaders.
During 1953 President Harry S. Truman's Committee on Government Contract Compliance urged the Bureau of Employment Security "to act positively and affirmatively to implement the policy of nondiscrimination..." (Sykes 223) Other equal protection laws passed to make discrimination illegal were the 1964 Civil Rights Act, Title II and VII of which forbid racial discrimination in public and sex discrimination in employment, and the 1965 Voting Rights Act adopted after Congress found "that racial discrimination in voting was an insidious and pervasive evil which had been perpetuated in certain parts of the country through unremitting and ingenious defiance of the Constitution." (Sykes 224).
Most of the “anti” views of affirmative action come from the group that does not benefit from affirmative action, white males. Some white males feel that their jobs are going to unqualified minorities or women that use affirmative action as a way to get employment. These people know that the main argument for affirmative action is that it creates equal opportunity for people in the work force and for students seeking admission into higher education. However, to them this is not a valid point. While affirmative action creates equal opportunity for some individuals, whites say that it discriminates against others, primarily white males. Therefore, affirmative action uses reverse discrimination to solve the problem of discrimination. “Do two wrongs make a right?” Their answer is no.
Some people feel that the first reason affirmative action should be stopped is that employees often are hired that are not qualified to execute their jobs effectively. Many times people feel that
Saleh Bahereddin
BNS –Damazine
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