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محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
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محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



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كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي -Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-11
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 01:32 PM

Many of the natives write English; an art first acquired by some of the traders ‘sons who had visited England, and which they have had the sagacity to retain up to the present period. They have established schools and schoolmasters for the purpose of instructing in this art the youths belonging to families of consequence.
From existing records, it is also obvious that some of the coastal West African traders were already able to read and write a form of Pidgin English referred to by Daryll for deals "trade language," a type of hybrid language with a largely English vocabulary and Ibibio syntax, which had developed within the Oil Rivers. One of these traders, Antara Duke, a leading Caliber trader, kept a diary written entirely in "trade language" about his trading and social activities toward the end of the eighteenth century. In spite of the efforts by coastal individuals to establish schools and teach literacy, formally organized and systematic education was first introduced by the missionaries, and rather than being exclusively restricted to families of consequence, was open to all who desired it. In fact, it would appear that at the beginning, especially in Igbo land, modern literary education appealed mainly to the outcasts of traditional societies. The well-born and socially integrated were too secure in their traditional way of life to face the uncertainties of the new ways introduced by modern education. The Christian missions played a most crucial role in the development of a modern Western-oriented education that contributed more than any other factor in changing the face of West African society and introducing West Africa into the mainstream of a world literary tradition.



 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
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محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 12  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-12
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 01:37 PM

The need for Christian missions to spread Christianity as well as a civilization was of immense significance for the growth of written literature in West Africa. Of the two objectives, the generality of the missionaries would obviously place great emphasis on the conversion of the people. To facilitate their evangelical aspiration, the early missionaries had of necessity to learn the West African vernaculars and to reduce them to writing; they translated the Bible, hymn books, and other religious works into these vernaculars and taught West Africans to read and write so that they could avail themselves of the Christian message embodied in the translated texts.
Each aspect of these contributions is vital to the development of written literature in West Africa.
The missionaries, by adapting the West African vernaculars to the Western script and using diacritics to mark tonal inflections, made a permanent contribution of the greatest importance to the study of African linguistics. In fact, it is obvious that the tools of linguistic research set up by them have not been superseded by modern linguistic research. In addition to translating the Bible and religious books into the vernaculars, the Christian missions participated actively in the compilation of dictionaries and grammar books on the vernacular languages. 22 The missionaries also encouraged the collection of
African oral traditions: folktales, fables, myths, proverbs, riddles, songs, and historical fragments and their permanent recording in writing. Their interest in these things also stimulated others, such as colonial administrators and European travelers, to similar activities. We may even go so far as to suggest that the establishment of departments for the study of African languages in European universities and the tremendous interest in the anthropological study of the oral societies of Africa, which began in the late nineteenth century and gathered strength in the twentieth, owe much of their inspiration to the interest of the early missionaries in the languages and cultures of the African peoples they went out to convert.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
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بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 13  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-13
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 01:47 PM

Apart from the positive contributions of European missionaries to the growth of vernacular literature, the growth of written literature in English has also been largely stimulated by them. Of particular significance is the fact that, by teaching reading and writing to West Africans, they equipped them with the necessary tools for creating written literature. Many West Africans trained in mission schools have written grammar books, dictionaries, school readers, plays, short stories, poetry, biographies, and extended prose works, both in the vernaculars and in the English language.
Most of the early written works in West Africa were, in fact, by West Africans engaged in the Christian ministry.
We have already seen that the Reverend Crothers, a Yoruba-slave who became the first Anglican bishop of Onitsha, produced dictionaries, grammar, and school textbooks in both the Yoruba and Igbo languages. In fact, so expertise his tonal description of Yoruba in his Yoruba Dictionary that it is still regarded by present-day students of Yoruba as an authoritative work. It is also of particular interest that the two earliest history books written in West Africa should have been by native Christian clergymen. The Reverend C. C. Reindeer, a Ghanaian minister of the Basel
Mission, wrote the first systematic history of Ghana (then Gold Coast) entitled History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti ( 1895), while the Reverend Samuel Johnson, a Yoruba, wrote The History of the Yoruba’s in 1897. The latter book was posthumously published by the Reverend Johnson's brother, Dr. O. Johnson, in 1921. In all these works, the writers draw heavily from the oral tradition that compounds much of what could be called pure historical information with legend and myth. Therefore, one of the most enduring contributions the missionaries have made to the growth of written literature in West Africa has been to stimulate interest in their local cultural traditions in native West Africans, and the desire to record these in history books, school textbooks and, later, to assimilate them into creative literature.
There was, of course, a certain ambivalence in the attitude of missionaries to the traditional African culture. There was much in it they rejected outright with a single-mindedness that came to influence in a profound way the attitude of many of their converts to this culture. This negative aspect of the missionary attitude to African culture has often engendered much deserved censure of the missionaries by many West Africans.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 14  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-14
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 01:52 PM

We have, however, in our eagerness to assign blame, forgotten the positive contributions made by the Christian missionaries to the spread of modern learning and the restoration of our local oral cultures to a position of dignity by their incorporation into our written literatures and records, for our own edification and for posterity.
There are striking analogies between the introduction of literacy and the growth of written literature in West Africa and in pre-medieval peasant societies elsewhere.
We have already seen how the spread of literacy and the development of written literature in Europe were carried out by the Christian missionaries after hordes of marauding Northern Europeans had overrun the old Roman Empire. These Teutonic invaders were illiterate and possessed an oral rather than a literary tradition. When they settled within the former Roman Empire, which already possessed a well-developed literary tradition, there were Latin or Greek clerks ready to write letters for their chieftains, or to record their laws, histories, and oral traditions--not in their own languages, be it said, but in Latin. Their native prose was choked by Latin competition, as R. W.
Chambers has observed, before it could spring up. 23 Elsewhere, as in Britain, Ireland, and Scandinavia, which were partially or not colonized at all by the Romans, and where literacy and the literary tradition were introduced de novo by the Christian missionaries fleeing from the disintegrating Roman Empire, both Latin and the native languages were established as literary languages. The native laws, local history, chronicles, and oral traditions were written down.
In Britain, for example, Latin remained the language of high scholarship as well as the language of the church, and was to maintain this position until the Reformation when English officially dethroned Latin as the language of the state, the church, and literature.
During this period, the English language was gaining in importance. Even though the literary tradition developed in Greece and transmitted through Rome to the rest of Europe was actively cultivated in British grammar schools, largely through the medium of Latin, an English prose and poetic tradition was also being nurtured by its side. The development of prose is traced by literary historians to King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Chronicles and was continued for centuries by subsequent contributors to the Chronicles until the eleventh century when, as a result of the Norman conquest of Britain, English was submerged by French for official and literary purposes. Even during this period of near eclipse of English, the English literary tradition continued to flourish in the people’s common speech while the pulpit (because preachers had to translate their sermons into English to get them across to their non-French-speaking audiences) continued to promote the English tradition from where the chronicle writers had left off. A few centuries after the conquest, the effect of French began to wane and English began to reassert itself as literary language, especially in the mass of homiletic and edificatory literature written by pious churchmen.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 15  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-15
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 01:56 PM

By the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, the English literary tradition had recovered its vigor and presence in the writings of Englishmen. With the Reformation and the breakup of the monasteries, English became the main national, administrative, and literary language, while Latin receded further into the realm of classical and antiquarian scholarship. The outburst of literary activity that marked the Renaissance found expression in Britain in the English tongue. The Norman influence, which earlier on had emasculated the creative impulse in medieval Britain, at last wore off, allowing currents of fresh literary influence to flow in from Italy, France, and Spain, and to be assimilated into the English native tradition based on the English language.
Thus, we can see that the introduction of the Roman script and the development of written literature in Britain went through three stages: the first in which Latin only was the literary language; the second, in which the native language (as well as Latin--we may here ignore the brief interlude of the Norman period whose influence was on law and politics mainly) was used for writing religious, historical, and literary works derived from Roman sources or based on Roman models (witness the large numbers of chronicles, histories, biographies, poems, etc., which belong to this stage) and the third, in which purely native works were written.
All this has considerable interest for anyone interested in the introduction of alphabetic writing and the development of written literature in West Africa. The analogies between the growth of written literature in pre medieval Europe and the growth of written literature in nineteenth-century West Africa are clearly marked. In both cases Christian missionaries were largely instrumental in the introduction of an alphabetic script. In both cases, also, they brought with them a cosmopolitan language and a literary tradition in developed state from their original base--Saint Augustine and his missionaries took Latin and Greco-Roman literary models to late-sixth-century Britain while the British missionaries brought the English language, together with European written literature, into West Africa in the nineteenth century.
In this respect, we may rightly say that there is some kind of continuity in the literary tradition, from the time the Greeks borrowed the Semitic alphabet and transformed it into an adequate instrument for communication and production of written literature, to the introduction of the Western script and European literary models by the Christian missionaries into West Africa.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 16  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-16
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 02:00 PM

We can see the whole thing as a continuous process of adjustments and incorporation of fresh elements from one stage to another in historical evolution, with different peoples joining the mainstream of the literary tradition whenever they were, by accident or by design, brought into contact with it. Britain and much of Europe entered this stream after the breakup of the Roman Empire. Africa entered it in the nineteenth century; but, in either case, Christian missionaries had been the main agents. Having entered the literary tradition at a much later stage than Europe, West Africa is a happy beneficiary of the contributions Europe had made to this tradition. In spite of the fact that Europe, an earlier arrival to this tradition, helped considerably in its development, both Europe and modern Africa share a common belonging to it; the main difference between their individual positions and their contributions to this literary tradition lies in the historical facts of Europe’s early arrival and the circumstances under which West Africa was brought into it.
The early stage of the development of written literature in West Africa roughly coincides with the same stage in Europe. There was a mass of grammar books and dictionaries written by both European missionaries and the first educated West Africans. The main West African languages were written down and the Bible, religious books, and songs were translated into them. There is this difference, however: the greater secularization of education, which followed the breakup of medieval Christendom in Europe, has had the effect in West Africa of transferring much of the emphasis from religious to secular subjects. The result is that, along with the teaching of the scriptures and the catechism, the missionaries had also to teach grammar and composition, history and geography, mathematics, science, English, and classical literature.
They set up schools patterned on European models and with a content based largely on that of the English schools.
There was from the beginning some argument as to the suitability of the content of Western-oriented education to West Africa. This argument centered on the question of how much each of local and foreign elements should be incorporated into the school syllabuses to ensure a balanced development of students and prevent their wholesale alienation from the indigenous culture.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 17  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-17
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 02:07 PM

The debate in this argument does not matter too much here. What is of interest is to note that West Africans were brought into contact with the various written forms already established in Europe through Western type schools, and that when they came to produce written literature, they readily used these forms as their models in the same way that the British had adopted the Greco-Roman models after the introduction of the Roman script.
The first West Africans to produce written literature were actually expatriates who found themselves, as a result of the slave trade, in Europe long before the missionaries came to West Africa in large numbers. The most widely known of them was Gustavo’s Vass whose real name was Laudat Equiano. He was kidnapped at eleven along with his sister by slave hunters and sold into slavery in the United States. Bought by a British sea captain, he was taken to England. Later he bought his freedom and became a Christian and a respected gentleman. In 1789 he published his autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa, the African, a fascinating account of his life and what he remembered of his childhood and life in his village.
Toward the end of the book he makes a strong plea against the slave trade. His book was made much of by those English people engaged in the antislavery movement. The style of the narrative with its dignified prose is typically eighteenth century.
The eighteenth century English convention also shows in the foreword in which he offered his book to the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and the Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain, writing: "Permit me, with the greatest deference, to lay at your feet the following genuine narrative, the chief design of which is to excite in your august assemblies a sense of compassion.... I am sensible I ought to entreat your pardon for addressing to you work so wholly devoid of literary merit as the production of an unlettered African...."
The undoubted importance of Equiano's narrative from the literary, historical, and social anthropological angles has been acknowledged by the prominence accorded it in nearly all the anthologies of African literature that have appeared up to the present time.
The other West African expatriates are much less known in West African literary circles than Equiano. One of them, however, Ignatius Sancho, a Ghanaian who was born on a slave ship as his pregnant mother was being taken into slavery, was brought to England and, at the age of two, handed over to a household containing three sisters. It must have been the sisters who nicknamed him Sancho in remembrance of Don Quixote's charming squire.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 18  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-18
قديم بتاريخ : 04-06-2015 الساعة : 02:11 PM

He entered the service of the duke and duchess of Montague as butler, educated himself, and later had his letters against the African slave trade published. Other West African expatriates include the Ghanaian Anton Amo, who became a great scholar and philosopher, and published, among his works, De lure Maura rum in Europa, a thesis vindicating the humanity and intellectual integrity of the African. Like Equiano and Sancho works, De Jure Maura rum was directed against the African slave trade. These writers were greatly influenced by the European intellectual tradition although, unlike the first two writers who knew only English, Amo's knowledge of Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and French, in addition to Dutch and German, must have made him an intellectual of international repute.
In West Africa for a long time, apart from the spate of grammar books, dictionaries and translated religious texts, there was little or no creative writing. One of the situations, however, in which literacy was put to practical use from its early inception was in letter writing.
We have since grown accustomed to the public letter-writer as a ridiculous figure of fun in West African prose fiction, which has the effect of diminishing our appreciation of his importance at the earliest period of the introduction of literacy. His efforts, crude and often deficient in many ways, sustained some kind of communication between those at home and their kinsmen, who were venturing out of their rural isolation into the new urban settlements springing up everywhere under Western stimulus. His scribbling helped to ease the pain arising from the tremendous disjunction of the old stable community that followed the movement of peoples from country to town.
In a way, these early letter-writers could be regarded as the forerunners of later creative writers.
They were the most creative early professional group that emerged after the introduction of Western education.
They had to grapple with the problems of transmitting the oral style of communication into writing for the benefit of a third party. It required imaginative exertion to render vernacular expression into a foreign language, and to capture, through the proper kind of phrasing, the mood, tone, and gestures of their clients

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 19  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-19
قديم بتاريخ : 04-08-2015 الساعة : 12:05 PM

The essential difference between scribes and modern creative writers proper is that the latter have absolute choice of their subjects and a greater freedom to order them. The letter-writers had had their material provided for them to order and their success at communicating depended on their sense of the dramatic, their grasp of human situation, and their skillful use of language to recapture the mood and the emotional nuances of their clients.
Not everyone, however, felt very kindly toward the professional letter writers and their trade. Governor Clifford of Nigeria, for instance, roundly vilified them in his address to the Nigerian Council in 1920. After attacking "the mushroom growth of 'hedge' schools in Southern Nigeria," he goes on to comment on the products of these schools: "... too many of them, no matter how imperfectly educated they may be, thereafter regard themselves as superior to agricultural pursuits and prefer to pick up a precarious and demoralizing living by writing more or less unintelligible letters for persons whose ignorance is even deeper than their own." 28 It is difficult to imagine what the governor found so disreputable about the profession of letter writing. If anything, these letter-writers, as we have seen, were performing an essential social function at a time when extensive physical mobility unprecedented in the life of the small-scale, self-contained traditional communities was in progress, and there was a very real need for members of the community to keep in touch with their absent relations (and vice versa) by letter.
One of the phenomena associated with the spread of literacy and the growth of written literature in West Africa was the tremendous interest in African culture they gave rise to, as reflected in the number of history books by Africans appearing between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Reverend Reindeer History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti and the Reverend Johnson the History of the Yorubas incorporated what could be regarded as history proper with myths and legends. There were other educated West Africans who were beginning to be interested in the local history and social anthropology of their areas and who wrote about these in the cultural magazines established by the British administration in the various British West African territories.
Some published essays dealing with such subjects in the local newspapers, while others
Produced theirs in pamphlets issued by local printing presses or as books published in the
United Kingdom.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 20  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-20
قديم بتاريخ : 04-08-2015 الساعة : 12:10 PM

This interest in local history and cultural institutions gathered strength in the first decade of the twentieth century and has continued to the present day. The mass of historical and Social-anthropological writing, not surprisingly, appeared first among such West African Peoples as the Yoruba, the Fanti, and the Sierra Leoneans, who received Western Education earlier than the other West Africans. Modern West African historians such ask. O. Dike and J. F. A. Ajayi of Nigeria and Arthur Porter of Sierra Leone, sociologists such as Kofi Busia of Ghana and the late Nathaniel Fadipe of Nigeria, legal scholars such as T. O. Elias of Nigeria, and theological scholars such as Drs. Lucas and Idowu of Nigeria who have emerged since the 1930s, and whose scholarship has a distinctly West African bias, are therefore continuing and sublimating a process begun in an earlier period. To the coastal intellectuals of the later nineteenth-century West Africa, like Africanus Horton and Edward Blyden, African culture was a kind of abstraction they championed because they felt it belonged to them even though, in fact, they did not belong to it.
After them, however, and as education spread farther inland, there followed generation of fairly educated Africans with a background in this culture, people who had lived part or all of their lives within a purely African environment, and felt the urge to describe this traditional way of life, not only in order to reassure themselves but also in order to record it before the oncoming cosmopolitan modern culture obliterated it.
Apart from historical and cultural interests, the writing of biographies was beginning to excite the imaginations of members of the literate class. We have already seen that in the late eighteenth century Olaudah Equiano wrote his autobiography--for English readers--and that Antera Duke of old Calabar also wrote his fascinating but brief account of his trading life about the same period; but nothing in the nature of a true biography seems to have appeared after these until Adobe Deniga West African Biographies in 1914.
Deniga was an Ondo man living in Lagos. In 1914, he began a series of lectures spaced over a period of years on African leaders in West Africa. Each lecture, dealing with the lives of eight or more prominent people, was published as a pamphlet, and later a number of these pamphlets were formed into a book. In 1934, Deniga published another volume containing about double the number of biographies in the earlier book. Deniga wrote about his characters with great enthusiasm and undoubted sympathy. He tried to be as factually accurate as possible by interviewing known descendants of those he wrote about and asked for the most relevant information about them.
Another publication of African biographies was The Red Book of West Africa, which appeared in 1920 but ceased publication after a few years. No general biographical sketches of this nature appeared again until the publication of the modern Who's Who:

 
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