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محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
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محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



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كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-21
قديم بتاريخ : 04-08-2015 الساعة : 12:28 PM

Cyprian Ekwensi, the versatile Nigerian novelist, pioneered this species of writing.
In1947, while still a practicing pharmacist, his two booklets, When Love Whispers, a love story, and Ikolo the Wrestler and Other Igbo Tales, a collection of Igbo folktales, were published by Tabansi Bookshop in Onitsha. Soon after followed Chike Okonyia TragicNiger Tales, two sharp attacks on marriage by proxy. The output of the pamphlets continued to grow and by the mid-sixties anyone could buy a couple of hundred different titles from the Onitsha market and the large towns of Nigeria.
In 1954, two years after Tutuola the Palm-Wine Drinkard appeared, Cyprian EkwensiPeople of the City, the first true novel in English by a Nigerian, was released. Since then, more and more novels, plays, books of poetry, anthologies, and other literary works have been published by West Africans.
It is obvious, therefore, that the growth of written literature in West Africa has followed the same pattern that it had in medieval (or earlier) Europe. In either case, we notice the introduction of an alphabetic script by Christian missionaries through a formal, literary education, followed by the writing down of the vernaculars and their being used (side by side with the cosmopolitan languages) to produce written literature. There is this difference, however: whereas the European vernaculars like English, Russian, or Swedish came with time to replace Latin, in West Africa, English and French have persisted asliterary languages and have tended to drive the West African vernaculars into the corner.
This is so because English and French have become "link" languages among the hetero lingual peoples of West Africa.
Finally, we see that the development of written literature has followed models existing in the original base from which the writing system, cosmopolitan language, and system of education have been transplanted to the new place. In Europe, Christian monks brought the various literary genres that had existed in the old Greco-Roman classical period--chronicles, histories, biographies, grammars, poems, as well as religious and legal works.
In West Africa, European missionaries inculcated the various forms of written literature developed in Europe.



 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
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محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



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كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-22
قديم بتاريخ : 04-08-2015 الساعة : 12:32 PM

In addition to the forms borrowed from ancient Greece and Rome by the rest of Europe that crystallized into the European literary tradition, West Africa has also inherited other literary forms that were to develop later within the Western literary tradition. Thus, West African writers have not only cultivated such literary forms as history, biography, grammar, poetry, as well as composing religious, legal, and philosophical works, they have also inherited and are imitating the novel, a post-Renaissance European contribution to the literary tradition.
West Africa has, on the whole, gained from the technical improvements in the production of literature (such as the development and spread of the printing press) achieved in Europe, and this, in turn, has hastened the growth of literacy and the pace at which West Africans have begun to create written literature and to pass from a purely oral to a largely literary tradition. This is amply proved by the fact that it took much longer for the novels to emerge in Europe after the introduction of alphabetic writing than it did in West Africa. Between the arrival of Augustine and his missionaries in Britain and the emergence of the novel, there passed no less than eleven centuries, whereas between the arrival of European missionaries and their establishment of Western oriented schools in the mid-nineteenth century in West Africa and the appearance of Ekwensi People of the City in 1954, there passed only a hundred years.
The Kingdom of the Nupe of Nigeria ( London, 1942) present a clear picture of post-jihad Northern Nigeria. Their works provide a background to the literature produced in this partof West Africa and explain how the most literate class emerged. In the Nupe Emirate, described by Nadel, the imams, or religious leaders, and the alkalis, or judges, form the core of the scholarly class.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
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محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 23  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-23
قديم بتاريخ : 04-08-2015 الساعة : 12:36 PM

AMOS TUTUOLA is the first West African writer of fiction to attain international recognition. When his first book, The Palm-Wine Drinkard, appeared in 1952, it was received with enthusiasm in Europe and America. The book has now been published in French, Italian, and German. Since The Palm-Wine Drinkard, Tutuola has written five more books: My Life in the Bush of Ghosts, Simbi and the Satyr of the Dark Jungle, The Brave African Huntress, Feather Woman of the Jungle, and The Wild Hunter in the Bushof Ghosts.
It seems quite ironical but it is true that the more popular Tutuola's books became abroad, the more unpopular they became (at least until recently) at home. There are many reasons for this, but the main one seems to be that he deals with a world that European writers, especially "the crocodile writers," had exploited in the past from a motive of sensationalism at a time when little that was authentic was known about African cultural life. That world was one of witches and wizards, of magic and magicians, of jungle life, ritual murder, and mumbo-jumbo. Tutuola, however, is no lineal descendant of creative European writers on West Africa. Itis obvious that a hiatus exists between European and indigenous writers on West Africa, the first group writing essentially for a European audience and about situations which they only saw from the outside, and the second group writing for a West African and on-West African audience about situations seen largely from the inside. Anybody familiar with West African writing will readily agree that Tutuila’s work has a greater affinity with the writing of the latter group than with that of the former because it is based largely upon the oral tradition of West Africa represented in the works of indigenous West African writers but hardly in those of non-West African writers.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 24  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-24
قديم بتاريخ : 04-08-2015 الساعة : 12:41 PM

The more open objection to Tutuola by some Nigerian critics’ is that he has merely collected and rehashed folktales known to everyone and put them into semiliterate English. In this sense, he is, in their opinion, no more original than a stamp collector. His work, they say, has the fascination of novelty for Europeans that it could not possibly have for indigenous Nigerians. By this kind. Of criticism they try to deny him any creative merit or originality. The ensuing discussion will prove this criticism to be both misguided and misleading. The concept of originality within the oral tradition is not the same as it is within the literary tradition, and I conceive of Tutuola's writing in the context of transition between the oral and the literary tradition.
Cultural continuity within the no literate traditional societies of West Africa (and still toa very large extent after the introduction of literacy) is carried on largely by oral transmission. Goody and Watt emphasize this statement in respect of all non-literate societies when they write, ". . . all beliefs and all values, all forms of knowledge, are communicated between individuals in face-to-face contact; and as distinct from the material context of the cultural tradition, whether it is cave-painting or hand-axe, they are stored only in human memory." 2 Storytelling is one of the ways in which this oral transmission of culture is carried on. In traditional African communities storytelling provides entertainment, moral instruction, and an opportunity to express collective solidarity. It is one of the methods of educating young people by introducing them to the material culture, customs and usages, beliefs and philosophies of their people. Traditional African narrative can therefore be said to embody more than the art for art's sake philosophy.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 25  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-25
قديم بتاريخ : 04-08-2015 الساعة : 12:46 PM

Storytelling is part of the seasonal rhythm of life in Africa and is closely related to the ecology of any particular area. 3 Among all agricultural village dwellers in Africa, the ideal storytelling period is after the harvest when people are free at night to assemble round a fire or in an open courtyard when there is moonlight. Sometimes children gather together while adults sit apart, conversing and smoking pipes or taking snuff; sometimes adults join children. Sometimes the group is composed of the members of the same compound-the father, his wives, their children, the father's and often the mother’s relatives living within the compound. Very often the gathering is a larger one and includes people from other compounds and adjoining villages.
There is a definite solidarity by way of shared response and stimulus between the narrator and his audience. The story itself is often well known to everyone present and has been told often. The audience therefore anticipates every move of the narrator in the singing of the ditties where these form a part of the story.
People are not bored because they already know the story. Apart from feeling the pleasure of recognizing the details of the story, they can be thrilled by the competent narrator, who enhances the effect of his story by his manner of narration, his gestures, verbal command, and voice modulation.
There are different types of traditional stories, with varying contents, patterns of narration, and significance. There are also what, for lack of a better nomenclature, are called "verbal arts." Verbal arts are not stories but are an essential part of traditional lore.
They depend on verbal command, association of ideas, and the ability to establish naturalistic links among objects. They include proverbs and riddles.
Proverbs are the kernels that contain the wisdom of a people. They are

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
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محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 26  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-26
قديم بتاريخ : 04-08-2015 الساعة : 12:50 PM

Usually philosophical or moral expositions reduced to a few words, and form a mnemonic device in societies in which everything worth knowing and relevant to the day-to-day life of the people has to be committed to memory. The speeches of old men are usually spiced with them and it is certainly considered an index of traditional wisdom to apply them appropriately in one's speech. The pronouncements of divination are often couched in proverbs since they confirm that the diviner is both an intellectual and a philosopher in the traditional African society. In contemporary West African novels the proverb features prominently as one of the ways West African authors recapture traditional speech atmosphere and wisdom.
Riddles are briefly stated questions, the answers to which are to be guessed by the listener. They are essentially intellectual exercises that provide an outlet for training the powers of observation and imagination. They are very popular with young people and provide a welcome diversion when storytelling becomes monotonous. They are usually telegraphic, that is, they are formed with a minimum expenditure of words, with conjunctions and prepositions almost always left out. 4 They are in the form of statements even though they require answers, for example: "Elephant dies, Jamu-Jamu eats him; cowdies, Jamu-Jamu eats him; Jamu-Jamu dies, there is no one who eats him." Most of the riddles are enigmas or paradoxes presented by balanced statements that appear mutually contradictory, incongruous, or impossible, as, for example, "A black ram goes to the river; it turns white." Riddles, apart from affording training in observation and sharpening the imagination, introduce young people to the material culture of their society. They are also an essential element in cultural orientation and moral training. A Yoruba riddle, such as "Who is it that goes down the street without greeting the king?" makes children aware that when they walk by the king's palace they must go in and greet him. Proverbs and riddles are not stories, properly speaking, but they are so vital a part of the oral tradition that they cannot be left out of even the most cursory discussion of that tradition. Linguistic development within the literary culture of Europe seems to lean toward discouraging the use of fossilized expressions such as proverbs, saws, apothegms, and even epigrams. They are either regarded as clichés or therefore vulgar or as signs of affectation and pedantry. At the core of this attitude is the modern concept that originality and individuality are expected to be reflected in individual speech and writing style. Untraditional no literate societies, however, the appropriate application of these set expressions is regarded as a mark of rhetorical virtuosity and traditional wisdom.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 27  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-27
قديم بتاريخ : 04-08-2015 الساعة : 12:54 PM

Riddles do not seem to have had a very important place within the English literary tradition except in balladry, which, in any case, belongs essentially to the oral tradition.
Shakespeare's use of the casket riddle in The Merchant of Venice obviously indicates the close touch his age still had with oral traditional lore. The verbal arts are an essential feature of no literate societies. They are very highly developed in traditional West African societies.
Traditional stories can be differentiated into folktales, legends and pseudo-history, and myths. 5 These are distinctive in their content, narrative form, and significance. They are easily confused one with another, and much misunderstanding ofTutuola's writing, as will appear later in this discussion, arises from the failure to realize the underlying differences among these narrative types and the content within whichTutuola was writing.
Legends and pseudo-history are usually stories about tribal heroes and the significant events and places with which they are associated. These stories deal with, among other things, military exploits, magical prowess, singular economic fortunes, and feats of strength, skill, and wit.
In traditional African societies, legends embody the main historic records of the people’s past and are passed down from generation to generation by oral transmission.
Old men are often the renowned chroniclers of the community and are highly revered as a result of their being the repositories of traditional historical records. Legends form an essential part of communal religious celebrations, not in the sense of being an integral part of the ritual activity, but in the sense of fulfilling the same role during communal eating and drinking that background music and conversation would at a modern European dinner party. The respected elder (sometimes one who stands to gain in reputation from the story being told, either because he took part in the incident being described or because he is lineally descended from the hero) refurbishes the imagination of the young people with these legendary tales. These he delivers as a series of reminiscences or reported accounts of what he learned from his father or another respected elder when he was young. While he narrates his story, a few words are thrown in occasionally by some of the adult males to jog his memory, or a few friendly noises are made to indicate that the people are still “with him." Sometimes arguments develop on a point of detail but these are rarely pressed hard enough to spoil the conviviality of the occasion. In these gatherings traditional African diplomacy, sense of decorum, and good breeding permeate everythingthat is said or done.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 28  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-28
قديم بتاريخ : 04-08-2015 الساعة : 01:00 PM

Women and children sit still and say nothing. Traditional African society has this in common with Victorian English life--women and children should be seen but not heard on such important occasions.
Legends and pseudo-history perform a dual function for the community that possesses them. First, they give the members of the community a collective solidarity by linking their present with their past, by enabling the living members of the community to identify themselves and their aspirations with those of the dead members. This is so because most traditional societies are small-scale societies within which oral dissemination of information presents no difficulty. Second, legends and pseudo-history provide the legalistic basis for settling the problems or rights and obligations within the social system; for, the doings of traditional heroes become precedents and norms by which present action can be judged. In terms of creativity, the freedom of the traditional chronicler is restricted by the material he is using. He must be loyal to the fact as he saw it or as it was handed down to him by his father or another reliable elder. In spite of that, the manner of his narration will reflect his capability as a competent narrator. His use of words, which are likely to evoke distinctive emotional responses in his listeners, his gestures, bodily movements, the expression of face, and even his judicious pauses and inflections cannot but add to the effects that his narratives produce. In some traditional African societies, especially those with greater specialization and division of labor, the chronicler becomes a professional court poet and historian. His method is often declamatory and his language highly formalized and rhetorical. His material, however, remains of communal interest and derives from the legends and pseudo-history of the community.
He cannot alter the facts, though he can use his imagination to enrich and vivify their color. These professional chroniclers have been variously designated as griots, orators, linguists, or remembrances. The most famous of them is the Asantehene'slinguist.
Myths are stories of a sacred nature that treat of the ultimate mysteries like death, the afterlife, creation, and the gods. They are not only regarded as true but have a pseudo religious significance. They are not just important for their story content but much of their value derives from their giving purpose to the mysteries of existence--they give meaning, as the anthropologist Malinowski has observed, to the cosmic order. Without them, traditional society would lose the rationale and the confidence that hold it together.
Let us take belief in God as an example. Nietzsche's gloomy prophecy that there will be universal madness on the day the world wakes to discover that there is no God may appear to be a cynical hypothetical speculation, but it cannot be doubted that belief in God is one of the great influences in the lives of individuals. The power of this belief is reflected in the horror with which believers regard confessed atheists. It is as if in his unbelief the atheist is threatening the very foundation and security of the believer's world.
There is no doubt whatever that myths provide security to the people in traditional societies. They are not just symbolic expressions of some detached realities, they are the realities and the charters for their own existence. They permeate the lives, beliefs, attitudes, and values of the people who profess them. They live in their mores and rituals, control their conduct, and govern their faith.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 29  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-29
قديم بتاريخ : 04-08-2015 الساعة : 01:05 PM

It must be said, of course, that the preponderance of myths in traditional African societies can be explained by the relative absence of skepticism among their peoples. Modern skepticism is an essential aspect of the modern scientific outlook that has been most developed within a literate tradition. But that is not to say that there is absolute conformity to and acceptance of the generally defined beliefs in traditional societies.
Within them there are bound to be those whose minds are disturbed by little ripples of doubt. The fact that some of the sanctions against nonconformity and disbelief appear too severe by modern standards goes a long way to indicate that the traditional African societies have their heretics and free-thinkers against whom priests and kings have evolved inquisitorial machines and repressive laws. An encounter with some of the priests and diviners often reveals cleverly concealed skepticism that sometimes makes them too vociferous in the assertion of beliefs they inwardly disavow. In spite of the growth of modern skepticism, however, myths continue to express, enhance, and modify belief, safeguard and enforce morality, vouch for the efficacy of ritual, contain practical rules for guiding behavior, and impart a general direction to the ideologies that seem to dominate the modern age.
Myths, by their very nature and collective significance, are always the product and property of the whole community, or a self-identified section of the community. They cannot belong to individuals in the sense of being formulated by them out of their own personal needs; for myths very often refer to things that are supposed to have happened in the past, and therefore provide a precedent or warrant for present actions and usages.
They have a dynamic quality only insofar as fresh and decisive events in the present lead to a gradual reinterpretation or reformulation of an old myth to reflect the new situation.
For instance, where an autochthonous people have been conquered and effectively subjugated by an invading group, old myths are reinterpreted to embody the new situation. Even in this circumstance the mythmakers or interpreters are not doing anything original or individual but are merely giving expression to the collective experience. The social function of myths is too closely tied up with the collective experience to be within the ken of individual creativity.
Folktales are distinctive imaginative stories told for amusement, entertainment, and education. They may deal with the experiences of individual human beings or of animals.
They often contain some moral or clinching exemplum--even though they are told essentially to provide entertainment, a strong didactic purpose is implicit in them.
They form the largest group of traditional narratives and have well-known and recurrent motifs and stereotyped characters.

 

 
محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص
عضو مميز
رقم العضوية : 7697
الإنتساب : Oct 2014
المشاركات : 699
بمعدل : 0.48 يوميا

محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص



  مشاركة رقم : 30  
كاتب الموضوع : محمد صالح بحرالدين محمد ص المنتدى : منتدى اللغات
افتراضي Recalling my Old( The Dew Wall-magazine-30
قديم بتاريخ : 04-08-2015 الساعة : 01:11 PM

The stock-characters include the trickster who is often something of a rogue. He manages to extricate himself from intriguing and sometimes dangerous situations by a display of mental agility. He is often associated with the forces of disorder within society--he breaks laws, tramples on customary usages, and subverts established social conventions, relying on the nimbleness of his wits to get him out of difficulties. Sometimes, he falls victim to his own cleverness, for in his attempt to trick others he very often gets tricked himself.
Among many West African tribes the trickster is often an animal. The Igbo have the tortoise, the Yoruba, the rat, and the Ashanti, Anansi the spider. Anansi stories are also popular in the Caribbean (notably in British Guiana and Jamaica) and among black Americans of the South. There are also human tricksters and trickster gods. TheDahomean Yo is among the outstanding divine tricksters in West Africa. Other folktale heroes have a varying degree of cleverness and stupidity according to circumstance and the exigencies of plot development, but the trickster alone evokes definite anticipation of a tale of villainy, daring, cunning, and intellectual gymnastics. One could observe in passing that the trickster type of folktale hero has a universal distribution. Within the European folktale tradition, Reynard the Fox and Brer Rabbit are among the celebrated rogue heroes.
Another popular folktale character in West Africa is the quest hero. He goes in quest of something or some ideal and usually undergoes harrowing ordeals before attaining his objective, then emerges full of confidence and triumph. He owes his escape from disaster and defeat to personal courage, chance, divine intervention, or magic. The dark horse is also a common folktale hero. Often a victim of persecution at the hands of an unkind uncle, a wicked aunt, a scheming stepmother (or, if a girl, an invidious and jealous elder sister), the hero manages to steal the show in spite of his obvious handicaps, much to the discomfiture of his hostile relatives. The Cinderella heroine of the European folktale is the nearest equivalent to the dark horse. The villain or persecutor is a very common character. He is usually an antihero. He is ruthless, cunning, and physically menacing and constitutes one of the task-masters of the quest hero.
West African folktales also have stereotyped motifs. The same motifs occur in different parts of West Africa and, in fact, in different parts of Africa, as has been shown by comparative folklorists who have made a study of folktales in different parts of Africa.
Some of the common folktale motifs are the stubborn child motif, the crime-does-not-pay motif, the unfaithful friend motif, the fairy godmother motif, the good-versus-evil motif, and the pride goat-before-a-fall motif. These motifs derive essentially from traditional cultural values, the norms of behavior, and the strains and stresses that originate from day-to-day individual relationships. In traditional West African societies, with their sedentary agricultural occupation, there exists a widespread socialization of beliefs, moral values, and modes of behavior, and consequently an acceptance of a common standard of what comprises an ethically justifiable action or its travesty.

 
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